11. Gay Men, Homophobia and Masculinity
Note: This section lists only works which comment on gay men’s or homophobia’s relation to masculinity. Also see works above on men’s relations with men, and on men’s sexuality. Many general works on men and masculinities above include sections on men and homophobia. Works on homophobia and heterosexism and on gay men’s sexuality, politics and culture are listed below in “Gay Male Sexualities”.
Bell, D. (2000). Farm Boys and Wild Men: Rurality, Masculinity, and Homosexuality. Rural Sociology. 65(4):547-561, Dec.
Bergling, Tim. (2001). Sissyphobia: Gay Men and Effeminate Behavior. New York: Southern Tier Editions.
Bersani, Leo. (1995). Loving Men. In Maurice Berger, Brian Wallis, and Simon Watson. (eds). Constructing Masculinity. New York and London: Routledge.
Boellstorff, T. (2004). The emergence of political homophobia in Indonesia: Masculinity and national belonging. Ethnos, 69(4): 465-486.
Brady, S. (2005). Masculinity and Male Homosexuality in Britain, 1861--1913. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Brake, Mike. (1976). ‘I May Be Queer, But At Least I Am a Man’: Male Hegemony and Ascribed Versus Achieved Gender. In Barker, Diana L. and Allen, Sheila. (eds). Sexual Divisions and Society: Process and Change. London: Tavistock
Brewis, J. and G. Jack (2010). Consuming Chavs: The Ambiguous Politics of Gay Chavinism. Sociology 44(2): 251-268.
Bristow, Joseph. (1989). Homophobia/Misogyny: Sexual Fears, Sexual Definitions. In Sheperd, Simon and Wallis, Mick. (eds). Coming on Strong: Gay Politics and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman .
Brown, J. R. (2011). No homo. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(3), 299-314.
Buchbinder, David. (1994). ‘Well, Nobody’s Perfect’: Marginal Masculinities. In Masculinities and Identities. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press .
Buchbinder, David. (1998). Performance Anxieties: Re-producing Masculinity. Sydney: Allen & Unwin
Burn, Shawn M. (2000). Heterosexuals’ Use of “Fag” and “Queer” to Deride One Another: A Contributor to Heterosexism and Stigma. Journal of Homosexuality, 40: 1-11.
Bush, A., Anderson, E., & Carr. S. (2012). The declining existence of men’s homophobia in British sport. Journal of the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 6 (1), 107-120.
Clarkson, J. (2005). Contesting Masculinity’s Makeover: Queer Eye, Consumer Masculinity, and “Straight-Acting” Gays. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 29(3): 235-255.
Clarkson, J. (2006). “Everyday Joe” versus “Pissy, Bitchy, Queens”: Gay Masculinity on StraightActing. com. Journal of Men’s Studies, 14(2): 191-207.
Clatterbaugh, Kenneth. (1990). A View From Outside: Gay and Black Men Respond. In Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity: Men, Women, and Politics in Modern Society, Colarado & Oxford: Westview Press .
Comstock, Gary David. (1996). Gay Men and Straight Men: Getting Unstuck and Crossing Over. Journal of Men’s Studies, 4(3), February, pp. 281-290.
Connell, R.W. (1992). A Very Straight Gay: Masculinity, Homosexual Experience, and the Dynamics of Gender. American Sociological Review, 57(6), December (Also in Connell, R.W. (1995). Masculinities. Sydney: Allen & Unwin).
Connell, R.W., Davis, M.D. and Dowsett, G.W. (1993). A Bastard of a Life: Homosexual Desire and Practice Among Men in Working-Class Milieux. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 29(1), March.
Corbett, Ken. (2001). Faggot = Loser. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 2: 3-28. (Also in: Corbett, Ken. (2001). Boyhoods: Rethinking masculinities. New Haven & London: Yale University Press.)
Coveney, Lal, Jackson, Margaret, Jeffreys, Sheila, Kay, Leslie and Mahony, Pat. (1984). The Sexuality Papers: Male Sexuality and the Social Control of Women. London: Hutchinson.
Davidson, Samuel Marc. (2006). Exploring Socio-Cultural Borderlands: Journeying, Navigating, and Embodying a Queer Identity. Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 14 Issue 1.
Davies, M. (2004). Correlates of Negative Attitudes Toward Gay Men: Sexism, Male Role Norms, and Male Sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 41(3): 259.Dennis, J. P. (2006). Queering Teen Culture: All-American Boys and Same-Sex Desire in Film and Television. New York: Harrington Park Press.
Dinshaw, Carolyn. (2009). Queer Perspectives. In Debating Masculinity, eds. Josep M. Armengol and Angels Carabi. Harriman, Tennessee: Men’s Studies Press.
Dollimore, Jonathan. (1997). Desire and Difference: Homosexuality, Race, Masculinity. In Stecopoulos, Harry and Uebel, Michael. (eds). Race and the Subject of Masculinities. Duke University Press.
Dorais, Michael et. al. (2004). Dead Boys Can’t Dance: Sexual Orientation, Masculinity, and Suicide.
Dowsett, Gary W. (1993). I’ll Show You Mine, If You’ll Show Me Yours: Gay men, masculinity research, Men’s Studies, and sex. Theory and Society, 22. (Also reprinted in On The Level, 3(4), October 1995)
Dowsett, Gary W. (1994). Working-Class Homosexuality, Gay Community, and the Masculine Sexual (Dis)order. Revue Sexologique, 2(2), Autumn, pp. 75-105.
Dowsett, Gary W. (1998). Wusses and Willies: Masculinity and Contemporary Sexual Politics. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 3(2), December.
Doyle, James A. (1989). Of Gay Men and Opened Closets: Homosexuality. Chapter 13 in The Male Experience. (2nd edition) Iowa: W.M.C. Brown.
Du Plessis, M. (2000). Nostalgia for a Homogeneous Gay Masculinity [Review], Modern Fiction Studies. 46(2):501-514, Sum.
Edwards, Tim. (1990). Beyond Sex and Gender: Masculinity, Homosexuality and Social Theory. In Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David H.J. (eds). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman.
Edwards, Tim. (1993). Erotics and Politics: Gay Male Sexuality, Masculinity, and Feminism. New York: Routledge.
Edwards, Tim. (2005). Queering the Pitch? Gay Masculinities. In The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Eds Michael Kimmel, Jeff Hearn, and R.W. Connell. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Edwards, Tim. (2006). On the Other Side of the Mirror I: Masculinity and homosexuality. Chapter 4 in Cultures of Masculinity. Routledge.
Eguchi, S. (2011). Negotiating Sissyphobia: A Critical/Interpretive Analysis of One “Femme” Gay Asian Body in the Heteronormative World. Journal of Men’s Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 37-56.
Fejes, F. (2000). Making a Gay Masculinity. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 17(1):113-116, Mar.
Flood, M., and C. Hamilton (2008) Mapping Homophobia in Australia. In Homophobia: An Australian History. Ed. S. Robinson. Federation Press (pp. 16-38). (Available at http://www.xyonline.net/content/mapping-homophobia-australia
Flood, Michael. (1993). Straightjacket. (Homophobia and masculinity) XY: Men, Sex, Politics, 3(2), Winter.
Flood, Michael. (1997). Homophobia and Masculinities Among Young Men (Lessons in Becoming a Straight Man). Presentation to Teachers, Professional Development Training, O’Connell Education Centre, Canberra, 22 April (Copy available from author).
Forrest, David. (1993). ‘We’re Here, We’re Queer, and We’re Not Going Shopping’: Changing Gay Male Identities in Contemporary Britain. In Cornwall, Andrea and Lindisfarne, Nancy. (eds). Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. London and New York: Routledge.
Frye, Marilyn. (1983). The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory. Trumansburg NY: Crossing Press.
Gilbert, Rob, and Pam Gilbert. (1998). Masculinity at the Margins. Chapter 6 in Masculinity Goes to School. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Glick, P., C. Gangl, S. Gibb, S. Klumpner, and E. Weinberg. (2007). Defensive Reactions to Masculinity Threat: More negative affect towards effeminate (but not masculine) gay men. Sex Roles, 57: 55-59.
Goetz, J. (1987). Interrupting Homophobia. Achilles Heel, No. 8, April.
Gough, Jamie. (1989). Theories of Gay Identity and the Masculinisation of the Gay Man. In Sheperd, Simon and Wallis, Mick. (eds). Coming on Strong: Gay Politics and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman
Halberstam, Judith. (1997). Mackdaddy, Superfly, Rapper: Gender, Race, and Masculinity in the Drag King Scene. Social Text, Special Issue: Queer Transexions of Race, Nation, and Gender, No’s 52-53.
Halberstam, Judith. (2005). Shame and White Gay Masculinity. Social Text, 23.3, Fall-Winter.
Han, C.S. (2008). No fats, femmes, or Asians: the utility of critical race theory in examining the role of gay stock stories in the marginalization of gay Asian men. Contemporary Justice Review, 11(1): 11-22.
Hanmer, Jalna. (1990). Men, Power, and the Exploitation of Women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 13(5), pp. 443-456 (Also published in Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David H.J. (eds). (1990). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman)
Harris, W. C. (2006). "In My Day It Used to Be Called a Limp Wrist": Flip-Floppers, Nelly Boys, and Homophobic Rhetoric in the 2004 US Presidential Campaign. Journal of American Culture, 29(3): 278.
Hart, Fiona. (year?). The Construction of Masculinity in Men’s Friendships: Misogyny, Heterosexism and Homophobia. Resources for Feminist Research, 19(3/4)
Hart, Kylo-Patrick R. (2004). We’re Here, We’re Queer -- and We’re Better Than You: The Representational Superiority of Gay Men to heterosexuals on Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. Journal of Men’s Studies, Spring, 12(3).
Harvey, Steve. (1999). Hegemonic Masculinity, Friendship, and Group Formation In an Athletic Subculture. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(1), Fall.
Hatchell, Helen. (2002). Masculinities And Adolescent Males At School: Disrupting Or Recreating Homophobic Discourses. In Manning the Next Millennium: Studies in Masculinities. Edited by Sharyn Pearce and Vivienne Muller. Black Swan Press.
Healy, Murray. (1996). Gay Skins: Class, Masculinity and Queer Appropriation. London: Cassell.
Heasley, R. (2005). Queer Masculinities of Straight Men: A Typology. Men and Masculinities, 7(3): 310-320.
Heidel, U. (2006). Homosexuality and reason of state. Masculinity, homophobia and politics in Germany 1900-1945. Zeitschrift Fur Geschichtswissenschaft, 54(2): 171-173.
Hennen, P. (2004). Fae Spirits and Gender Trouble: Resistance and Compliance among the Radical Faeries. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 33(5): 499-533.
Hennen, P. (2005). Bear bodies, bear masculinity - Recuperation, resistance, or retreat? Gender & Society, 19 (1), February, pp. 25-43.
Hennen, Peter. (2008). Faeries, Bears, and Leathermen: Men in Community Queering Masculinity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hensley, Christopher, Richard Tewksbury, and Jeremy Wright. (2001). Exploring the Dynamics of Masturbation and Consensual Same-Sex Sexual Activity Within a Male Maximum Security Prison. Journal of Men’s Studies, 10(1), Fall.
Hopkins, Patrick D. (1992). Gender Treachery: Homophobia, Masculinity, and Threatened Identities. In May, Larry and Robert Strikwerda. (eds). Rethinking Masculinity: Philosophical Explorations in Light of Feminism. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield .
Humphrey, Jill C. (2000). Cracks in the Feminist Mirror? Reflections on Lesbians and Gay Men Working Together. Feminist Review. No. 66, Autumn.
Humphries, Martin. (1985). Gay Machismo. In Metcalf, Andy and Humphries, Martin. (ed.). The Sexuality of Men. London: Pluto Press
Humphries, Martin. (1992). A Gay Man’s Reflections on the Men’s Movement. In Porter, David. (ed.). Between Men and Feminism. London & New York: Routledge
Jackson, Ronald L., and Murali Balaji. (2011). (eds.). Global Masculinities and Manhood. University of Illinois Press.
Jeffreys, Sheila. (1990). Anti-Climax: A Feminist Perspective on the Sexual Revolution. London: The Women’s Press.
Jeffreys, Sheila. (1993). The Lesbian Heresy. North Melbourne, VIC: Spinifex.
Johnson, Corey, and Diane Samdahl. (2005). “The Night They Took Over”: Misogyny in a Country-Western Gay Bar. Leisure Sciences, Volume 27, Number 4, July-September, pp. 331-348.
Kay, M., and S. Jeffries. (2010). Homophobia, Heteronormativism and Hegemonic Masculinity: Male Same-Sex Intimate Violence from the Perspective of Brisbane Service Providers Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 17(3), 412-423.
Kendall, Chris, and Wayne Martino. (eds.). (2006). Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws. Haworth Press.
Kendall, Christopher. (1995). Gay Male Pornography: An Issue of Sex Discrimination. Australian Feminist Legal Journal, 5, August, pp. 81-98.
Kendall, Christopher. (1997). Gay Male Pornography After Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium: A Call for Gay Male Cooperation in the Struggle for Sex Equality. Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal, XII(1), Spring.
Kennedy, T. (1987). Homophobia in the Left. In Snodgrass, Jon. (ed.). For Men Against Sexism, Albion CA, Times Change Press
Kilianski, Stephen E. (2003). Explaining Heterosexual Men’s Attitudes Toward Women and Gay Men: The Theory of Exclusively Masculine Identity. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(1), pp. 37-56.
Kimmel, Michael S. (1990). After Fifteen Years: The Impact of the Sociology of Masculinity on the Masculinity of Sociology. In Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David. (eds). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman, pp. 93-109.
Kimmel, Michael S. (1994). Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, shame, and silence in the construction of gender identity. In Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman. (eds). Theorizing Masculinities. London: Sage, pp. 119-141. (Also in Whitehead, Stephen M., and Frank J. Barrett. (eds). (2001). The Masculinities Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press.).
Kinsman, Gary. (1987). Men Loving Men: The Challenge of Gay Liberation. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press
Kinsman, Gary. (1993). ‘Inverts’, ‘Psychopaths’ and ‘Normal’ Men: Historical Sociological Perspectives on Gay and Heterosexual Masculinities. In Haddad, Tony. (ed.). Men and Masculinities: A Critical Anthology. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press
Kleinberg, Seymour. (1987). The New Masculinity of Gay Men and Beyond. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press.
Korobov, Neill. (2004). Inoculating Against Prejudice: A Discursive Approach to Homophobia and Sexism in Adolescent Male Talk. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Volume 5, Issue 2, July, pp. 178-189.
Kupers, Terry A. (1993). Homophobia in Straight Men. Chapter 3 in Revisioning Men’s Lives: Gender, Intimacy, and Power. New York & London: Guilford Press
Landreau, John, and Nelson Rodriguez. (eds.) (2012). Queer Masculinities: A Critical Reader in Education.
Lanzieri, N., and T. Hildebrandt (2011). Using Hegemonic Masculinity to Explain Gay Male Attraction to Muscular and Athletic Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(2): 275-293.
Lehne, G. K. (1998). Homophobia among men: Supporting and defining the male role. In M. S. Kimmel & M. A. Messner. (eds.), Men’s Lives (4th ed., pp. 237-249). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Lester, T. (1999). Protecting the gender nonconformist from the gender police: Why the harassment of gays and other gender nonconformists is a form of sex discrimination in light of the Supreme Court’s decision Oncale V. Sundowner. New Mexico Law Review, 29,1, pp. 89-118.
Levine, Martin P. (1997). Gay Macho: The Life and Death of the Homosexual Clone. New York University Press.
Leyland, Joyce. (1987). On the Conflicts of Doing Feminist Research Into Masculinity. Studies in Sexual Politics, 16, pp. 38-47 .
Long, Ronald E. (1994). An Affair of Men: Masculinity and the Dynamics of Gay Sex. Journal of Men’s Studies, 3(1), August, pp. 21-48.
Lunny, A. M. (2003). Provocation and ‘Homosexual’ Advance: Masculinized Subjects as Threat, Masculinized Subjects Under Threat. Social & Legal Studies, September, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 311-333.
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (1994). The Making of Men: Masculinities, Sexualities and Schooling. Buckingham: Open University Press..
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (2000). Rethinking (Male) Gendered Sexualities in Education: What About the British Heteros?. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.
Martino, Wayne. (2000). Policing Masculinities: Investigating the role of homophobia and heteronormativity in the lives of adolescent school boys. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.
McCann, Pól Dominic. (2006). The Pressures of Modern Manhood: The Role of Homophobia in Shaping the Gender and Sexual Identities of Australian Men. PhD thesis, University of New England.
McCormack, M. (2011). Hierarchy without hegemony: Locating boys in an inclusive school setting. Sociological Perspectives, 54(1), 83-101.
McCormack, M. (2011). The declining significance of homohysteria for male students in three sixth forms in the south of England. British Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 337-353.
McCormack, M., and E. Anderson. (2010). ‘It’s just not acceptable any more’: The erosion of homophobia and the softening of masculinity in an English state school. Sociology. 44(5), 843-859.
McCready, Lance T. (2004). Understanding the Marginalization of Gay and Gender Non-Conforming Black Male Students. Theory into Practice, Spring, Vol. 43, Iss. 2.
McInnes, D., J. Bradley, et al. (2009). The discourse of gay men’s group sex: the importance of masculinity. Culture, Health & Sexuality: An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care 11(6): 641-654.
Messner, Michael A. (1992). Friendship, Intimacy, and Sexuality. In Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press
Messner, Michael A. (1997). Racial and Sexual Identity Politics: Racialized Masculinity Politics and Gay Male Liberation. Chapter 5 in Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. University of Southern California: Sage Publications.
Monaghan, Lee. (2005). Big Handsome Men, Bears and Others: Virtual Constructions of ‘Fat Male Embodiment’. Body & Society, 11, no. 2: 81-111.
Moon, Dawne. (1995). Insult and Inclusion: The Term ‘Fag Hag’ and Gay Male ‘Community’. Social Forces, Vol 74(2), pp. 487-510
Moore, Clive. (1998). Behaving Outrageously: Contemporary Gay Masculinity. Journal of Australian Studies, No. 56.
Morin, S., and E.M. Garfinkle. (1978). Male Homophobia. Journal of Social Issues, 34(1).
Morin, S., and L. Nungesser. (1981). Can Homophobia Be Cured?. In Lewis, Robert A. (ed.). Men in Difficult Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Nakim, Shazza J’Bril. (1998). The Role of Masculinity in Male Homosexual Culture. http://www.bucknell.edu/~minter/str8/man.html, March
Nardi, Peter M. (ed.). (2000). Gay Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications (Research on Men and Masculinities Series).
Nayak, Anoop, and Mary Jane Kehily. (1996). Playing it Straight: Masculinities, Homophobias and Schooling. Journal of Gender Studies, 5(2), pp. 211-229.
Nayak, Anoop, and Mary Jane Kehily. (1997). Masculinities and Schooling: Why Are Young Men So Homophobic?. In Steinberg, Deborah L., Epstein, Debbie and Johnson, Richard. (eds). (1997). Border Patrols: Policing the Boundaries of Heterosexuality. London: Cassell
O’Neill, Terry, and Myra J. Hird. (2001). Double Damnation: Gay Disabled Men and the Negotiation of Masculinity.
Oates, T. P. (2007). The Erotic Gaze in the NFL Draft. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(1): 74-90.
Oware, M. (2011). Brotherly love: Homosociality and Black masculinity in gangsta rap music. Journal of African American Studies, 15(1), 22-39.
Owens, C. (1987). Outlaws: Gay Men in Feminism. In Jardine, Alice and Smith, Paul. (1987). Men in Feminism. London & New York: Methuen
Padva, Gilad, and Miri Talmon. (2008). Gotta Have An Effeminate Heart: The Politics of Effeminacy and Sissyness in a Nostalgic Israeli TV Musical. Feminist Media Studies, 8(1): 69-84.
Padva, Gilad. (2005). Radical Sissies and Stereotyped Fairies in Laurie Lynd’s The Fairy Who Didn’t Want To Be A Fairy Anymore. Cinema Journal, 45(1): 66-78.
Pallotta-Chiarolli, Maria. (1995). Can I Use The Word ‘Gay’?. In Browne, Rollo and Fletcher, Richard. (eds). Boys in Schools. Sydney: Finch Books.
Parrott, Dominic J., and Amos Zeichner. (2005). Effects of Sexual Prejudice and Anger on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, Volume 6 Issue 1, January.
Pascoe, C. J. (2005). ‘Dude, You’re a Fag’: Adolescent Masculinity and the Fag Discourse. Sexualities, 8(3): 329-346.
Pascoe, C.J. (2007). Dude, You’re a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. University of California Press.
Pease, Bob. (1996). (Re)Constructing (Hetero)sexual Politics. Chapter 7 in Reforming Men: Masculine Subjectivities and the Politics and Practices of Profeminism. PhD thesis. Melbourne: Graduate School of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, La Trobe University
Pease, Bob. (2002). Queering Men: Gay masculinities and heterosexual dominance. Chapter 10 in Men and Gender Relations. Melbourne: Tertiary Press.
Penney, J. (2012). “We Don’t Wear Tight Clothes”: Gay Panic and Queer Style in Contemporary Hip Hop. Popular Music and Society, 35(3), 321-332.
Peterson, Grant, and Eric Anderson. (2012). The Performance of Softer Masculinities on the University Dance Floor. Journal of Men’s Studies 20: 3-15.
Peterson, Grant. (2011). Clubbing masculinities: gender shifts in gay men’s dance floor choreographies. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(5): 608-25.
Plummer D. (2003). New Theories on Homophobic Masculinity. In: Michael Kimmel and Amy Aronson, Men and Masculinities – A social, cultural and historical encyclopaedia, ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, California (ISBN: 1-57607-774-8 (HBK); ISBN: 1-57607-775-6 (eBK)) (pp. 389-392).
Plummer, David. (1999). One of the Boys: Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood. New York: Harrington Park Press.
Plummer, David. (2001). The Quest for Modern Manhood: Masculine Stereotypes, Peer Culture and the Social Significance of Homophobia. Journal of Adolescence, Volume 24, Number 1, February, pp. 15-23.
Price, Jammie. (1998). Navigating Differences: Friendships Between Gay and Straight Men. Haworth Press
Pronger, Brian. (1990). Gay Jocks: A Phenomenology of Gay Men in Athletics. In Messner, Michael A. and Sabo, Donald F. (eds). (1990). Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives. Illinois: Human Kinetics Books.
Pronger, Brian. (1990). The Arena of Masculinity: Sports, Homosexuality, and the Meaning of Sex. London: GMP.
Ramakers, Micha. (2000). Dirty Pictures: Tom of Finland, Masculinity, and Homosexuality. St Martins Press.
Redman, P., D. Epstein, M.J. Kehily, and M. Mac An Ghaill. (2002). Boys Bonding: Same-sex friendship, the unconscious and heterosexual discourse. Discourse, 1 August, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 179-191.
Redman, Peter. (2000). ‘Tarred With the Same Brush’: ‘Homophobia’ and the Role of the Unconscious in School-Based Cultures of Masculinity. Sexualities, Volume 3 Issue 4, November
Reynaud, Emmanuel. (1981). Fearful Homosexuality. Part of Chapter 3, Man and Sexuality. In Holy Virility: The Social Construction of Masculinity. London: Pluto Press
Richardson, N. (2009). Effeminophobia, Misogyny and Queer Friendship: The Cultural Themes of Channel 4’s Playing It Straight. Sexualities 12(4): 525-544.
Richardson, N. (2009). Effeminophobia, Misogyny and Queer Friendship: The Cultural Themes of Channel 4′s Playing It Straight. Sexualities 12(4): 525-544.
Robinson, C. M., and S. E. Spivey (2007). The Politics of Masculinity and the Ex-Gay Movement. Gender & Society, 21(5): 650-675.
Rumens, N. (2010). Workplace friendships between men: Gay men’s perspectives and experiences. Human Relations: 0018726710361987.
Sanchez, F. J., J. S. Westefeld, et al. (2010). Masculine Gender Role Conflict and Negative Feelings About Being Gay. Professional Psychology Research & Practice April 41(2): 104-111.
Sanchez, F. J., S. T. Greenberg, et al. (2009). Reported Effects of Masculine Ideals on Gay Men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity January 10(1): 73-87.
Schimel, Lawrence. (1999). Boy Meets Boy. Griffin Trade Paperback.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. (1994). How to Bring Your Kids Up Gay: The War on Effeminate Boys. In Tendencies. Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 151-161.
Segal, Lynne. (1990). Competing Masculinities (II): Traitors to the Cause. Chapter 6 in Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. London: Virago
Sender, Katherine. (2006). Queens for a Day: Queer Eye for the Straight Guy and the Neoliberal Project. Critical Studies in Media Communication, Volume 23, Number 2, June, pp. 131 – 151.
Sheperd, Simon, and Mick Wallis. (eds). (1989). Coming on Strong: Gay Politics and Culture. London: Unwin Hyman
Shiers, John. (1980). Two Steps Forward, One Step Back. In Gay Left Collective. (eds). Homosexuality: Power and Politics. London & New York: Allison & Busby.
Shiers, John. (1988). One Step to Heaven?. In Cant, Bob and Hemmings, Susan. (eds). Radical Records: Thirty Years of Lesbian and Gay History. London & New York: Routledge.
Shugart, Helene A. (2003). Reinventing Privilege: The new (gay) man in contemporary popular media. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 20(1), March, pp. 67-91.
Signorile, Michelangelo. (1997). The Cult of Masculinity. Chapter 1 in Life Outside: The Signorile Report on Gay Men: Sex, Drugs, Muscles, and the Passages of Life. Harper Perennial.
Simpson, Mark. (1994). Male Impersonators: Men Performing Masculinity. New York: Routledge
Smith, George W. (1998). The Ideology of “Fag”: The School Experience of Gay Students. The Sociological Quarterly, 39: 309-35.
Snodgrass, Jon. (ed.). (1977). A Book of Readings: For Men Against Sexism, Albion CA: Times Change Press (e.g. on ‘revolutionary effeminism’)
Stanley, Liz. (1982). ‘Male Needs’: The Problems and Problems of Working With Gay Men. In Scarlet Friedman and Elizabeth Sarah, (eds). On the Problem of Men, The Women’s Press
Stanley, Liz. (1984). Whales and Minnows: Some Sexual Theorists and Their Followers and How They Contribute to Making Feminism Invisible. Women’s Studies International Forum, 7(1), pp. 53-62
Stein, A. (2005). Make room for daddy - Anxious masculinity and emergent homophobias in neopatriarchal politics. Gender & Society, 19(5): 601-620.
Stevenson, Michael R., and Barbara R. Medler. (1995). Is Homophobia a Weapon of Sexism?. Journal of Men’s Studies, 4(1), August, pp. 1-8.
Stoltenberg, John. (1982). Eroticized Violence, Eroticized Powerlessness. In Linden, Robin Ruth et. al. (eds). Against Sadomasochism, East Palo Alto, California: Frog in the Well Press
Stoltenberg, John. (1987). Other Men. In Abbott, Franklin. (ed.). New Men, New Minds: Breaking Male Tradition. California: Crossing Press
Stoltenberg, John. (1990). Other Men. In Refusing to Be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice. CA & Suffolk: Fontana/Collins.
Storer, Graeme. (1999). Rehearsing Gender and Sexuality in Modern Thailand: Masculinity and Male-Male Sex Behaviours. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 9(2-3), pp. 141-159.
Sycamore, Mattilda Bernstein. (ed.). (2012). Why Are Faggots So Afraid of Faggots?: Flaming Challenges to Masculinity, Objectification, and the Desire to Conform. AK Press.
Tacey, David. (1997). Homoerotic Desire and the Fathering Spirit. Chapter 5 in Remaking Men: The Revolution in Masculinity. Ringwood, VIC: Viking (Penguin Books)
Tatchell, Peter. (1995). We Don’t Want to March Straight: Masculinity, Queers and the Military. London: Cassell
Taywaditep, Kittiwut Jod. (2001). Marginalization among the Marginalized: Gay men’s anti-effeminacy attitudes. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), pp. 1-28.
Theodore P.S., and S.A. Basow. (2000). Heterosexual Masculinity and Homophobia: A Reaction to the Self? Journal of Homosexuality. 40(2): 31-48.
Tomsen, Stephen. (1998). ‘He Had to Be a Poofter or Something’: Violence, Male Honour and Heterosexual Panic. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 3(2), December.
Tomsen, Stephen. (2003). “A Gross Overreaction”: Violence, Honour and the Sanctified Heterosexual Male Body. In Stephen Tomsen and Mike Donaldson. (eds.) Male Trouble: Looking at Australian Masculinities. North Melbourne, VIC: Pluto Press.
Town, Shane (1999) Queer(y)ing Masculinities in Schools: Faggots, Fairies and the First XV. In Masculinities in Aotearoa/New Zealand, (eds.). R. Law, H. Campbell, and J. Dolan. Dunmore Press: Palmerston North.
Van Leer, David. (1989). The Beast of the Closet: Homosociality and the Pathology of Manhood. Critical Inquiry, Spring, 15(3).
Ward, E. G. (2005). Homophobia, hypermasculinity and the US black church. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(5): 493-504.
Whitehead, Stephen (ed.). (2006). Men and Masculinities: Critical Concepts in Sociology. 5 Volumes.
Wilson, B., G. Harper, et al. (2010). Negotiating Dominant Masculinity Ideology: Strategies Used by Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Male Adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology 45(1): 169-185.
Wilton, Tamsin. (1997). Representation, Resistance and Community. Chapter 6 in Engendering AIDS: Deconstructing Sex, Text and Epidemic. London: Sage
Wright, Les. (2005). (ed.) Men and Masculinities, Special Issue: “Queer” Masculinities. 7(3), January.
Wyss, Shannon E. (2004). ‘This was my hell’: The violence experienced by gender non-conforming youth in US high schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(5), September-October: 709-730.
Yeung, King-To, and Mindy Stombler. (2000). Gay and Greek: The identity paradox of gay fraternities. Social Problems, Feb., Vol. 47, Iss. 1.
Yeung, King-To, Mindy Stombler, and Renee Wharton. (2006). Making Men in Gay Fraternities: Resisting and Reproducing Multiple Dimensions of Hegemonic Masculinity. Gender & Society, February, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 5-31.
Zeeland, S. (1995). Sailors and Sexual Identity: Crossing the Line Between ‘Straight’ and ‘Gay’ in the U. S. Navy. New York: Harrington Park Press.