21. Men’s Bodies and Biology
Note: Also see “Health” and “Sport” above, and “Men’s Sexuality” below. For material on representations of men’s bodies, and on clothing and fashion, see “Masculinities in Culture and Representation”.
Adair Gowaty, Patrick. (2009). Biology and Gender(s). In Debating Masculinity, eds. Josep M. Armengol and Angels Carabi. Harriman, Tennessee: Men’s Studies Press.
Atkinson, M. (2008). Exploring Male Femininity in the ‘Crisis’: Men and Cosmetic Surgery. Body & Society, 14(1): 67-87.
Badinter, Elisabeth. (1995). XY: On Masculine Identity. (trans. Lydia Davis) New York: Columbia University Press.
Barber, K. (2008). The Well-Coiffed Man: Class, Race, and Heterosexual Masculinity in the Hair Salon. Gender & Society, 22(4): 455-476.
Baur, N. and H. Hofmeister. (2008). Some like them hot: how Germans construct male attractiveness. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(3): 280(21).
Beiras, A., Lodetti, A., Cabral, A.G.,Toneli, M.J.F.,Raimundo, P. (2007). Gender and Superheroes: The Masculine Body Traced by the Norm. Psicologia & Sociedade. 19 (3): 62-67.
Bell, K. and D. McNaughton (2007). Feminism and the Invisible Fat Man. Body & Society, 13(1): 107-131.
Bode, Katherine. (2008). Damaged Men Desiring Women: Male bodies in contemporary Australian women’s fiction. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.
Bordo, Susan. (1997). Reading the Male Body. In Moore, Pamela R. (ed.). Building Bodies. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Bordo, Susan. (1999). The Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
Boroughs, Michael, and J. Kevin Thompson. (2002). Body Depilation in Males: A New Body Image Concern? International Journal of Men’s Health. 1(3), September.
Brandth, B., and M. S. Haugen. (2005). Text, Body, and Tools: Changing Mediations of Rural Masculinity. Men and Masculinities, 8(2): 148-163.
Bridges, Tristan S. 2009. Gender Capital and Male Bodybuilders. Body & Society 15(1): 83-107.
Brown, David. (1999). Men, Bodybuilders and the Social Meaning of Muscle. In Silvennoinen, M. and A. Sparkes. (eds.). Men’s Bodies. University of Jyvaskyla: SoPhi.
Brubaker, S. J. and J. A. Johnson (2008). ‘Pack a more powerful punch’; and ‘lay the pipe’: erectile enhancement discourse as a body project for masculinity. Journal of Gender Studies, 17(2): 131 - 146.
Buchbinder, D. (2004). Object or Ground? The Male Body as Fashion Accessory.. Canadian Review of American Studies 34(3): 221-231.
Butt, Ramsay. (2001). The Trouble with the Male Dancer. pp. 44-55; IN: Dils, Ann and Albright, Ann Cooper. (ed.). Moving History / Dancing Cultures: A Dance History Reader; Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyn University Press.
Cafri, Guy, and J. Kevin Thompson. (2004). Measuring Male Body Image: A Review of the Current Methodology. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 5(1):18-29, January.
Chadwick, P. M., L. -M. Liao, and M. E. Boyle. (2005). Size Matters: Experiences of Atypical Genital and Sexual Development in Males. J Health Psychol, 10(4): 529-543.
Choi, P. Y. L. (2003). Muscle matters: maintaining visible differences between women and men. Sexualities, Evolution & Gender, 5(2): 71-81.
Connell, R.W. (1983). Men’s Bodies. Australian Society, October 1
Connell, R.W. (1983). Men’s Bodies. In Which Way is Up? Essays on Sex, Class and Culture. Sydney: George Allen & Unwin
Connell, R.W. (1987). The Body and Social Practice. Chapter 4 in Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Sydney: Allen & Unwin
Connell, R.W. (2000). Globalization and Men’s Bodies. Chapter 4 in The Men and the Boys. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Culbertson, Philip, Margaret Nelson Agee, and with Cabrini ‘Ofa Makasiale. (eds.). (2006). Penina Uliuli: Contemporary Challenges In Mental Health For Pacific Peoples. Honolulu: The University of Hawaii Press.
Davison, Kevin G. (2000). Boys’ Bodies in School: Physical Education. Journal of Men’s Studies, 8(2), Winter.
Diedrich, Lisa L. (1998). Hysterical Men: Shell-shock and the Destabilisation of Masculinity. In Shildrick, Margrit and Janet Price. (eds.). Vital Signs: Feminist Reconfigurations of the Bio/logical Body. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Dillon, Paul, Jan Copeland and Richard Peters. (1999). Exploring the Relationship between Male Homo/Bi-sexuality, Body Image and Steroid Use. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1(4), October.
Dotson, Edisol W. (1999). Behold the Man: The Hype and Selling of Male Beauty in Media and Culture. Harrington Park Press
Drummond, Murray and Garrett, R. (1998). The Cult of Body Obsession. ACHPER Matters, South Australia.
Drummond, Murray. (1999). Life as a Male Anorexic. Australian Journal of Primary Health Interchange. Vol 5 No 2.
Drummond, Murray. (2001). Boys’ Bodies in the Context of Sport and Physical Activity: Implications for Health. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand. 34(1), May
Drummond, Murray. (2002). Men, Body Image and Eating Disorders. International Journal of Men’s Health. 1(1), January.
Drummond, Murray. (2003). The Meaning of Boys’ Bodies in Physical Education. Journal of Men’s Studies, 11(2), Winter.
Drummond, Murray. (2005). Asian Gay Men’s Bodies. Journal of Men’s Studies, Spring, Vol. 13, Iss. 3.
Drummond, Murray. (2005). Men’s Bodies: Listening to the Voices of Young Gay Men. Men and Masculinities, 7(3), January.
Drummond, Murray. (2007). Muscles, muscularity. In International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. London: Routledge.
Drummond, Murray. (2009). Understanding masculinities within the context of men, body image and eating disorders. In Men, Masculinities and Health: Critical Perspectives. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 198-215.
Drummond, Murray. (2010). Men’s Bodies Throughout the Life Span. In An International Psychology of Men Theoretical Advances, Case Studies, and Clinical Innovations. USA: Routledge, pp. 159-188.
Duncan, D. (2007). Out of the Closet and into the Gym: Gay Men and Body Image in Melbourne, Australia. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(3).
Duroche, Leonard. (1990). Male Perception as Social Construct. In Hearn, Jeff and Morgan, David H.J. (eds.). Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman
Edwards, Stephen and Catherine Launder. (2000). Investigating Muscularity Concerns in Male Body Image: Development of the Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 28(1):120-124, Jul..
Eguchi, S. (2011). Negotiating Sissyphobia: A Critical/Interpretive Analysis of One “Femme” Gay Asian Body in the Heteronormative World. Journal of Men’s Studies, 19(1): 37.
Elliott R. & Elliott C. (2005), Idealized images of the male body in advertising: a reader-response exploration, Journal of Marketing Communications, 11, 1, 3-19.
Elliott, Richard, and Christine Elliott. (2005). Idealized images of the male body in advertising: a reader-response exploration. Journal of Marketing Communications, Volume 11, Number 1, March, pp. 3-19.
Ervo, Soren, and Thomas Johansson. (eds.). (2003). Bending Bodies: Moulding Masculinities, Volume Two. Hants, England: Aldershot.
Filiault, S. M., and M. J. N. Drummond (2009). Methods and methodologies: investigating gay men’s body image in Westernized cultures. Critical Public Health, 19(3): 307-323.
Flannigan-Saint-Aubin, Arthur. (1994). The Male Body and Literary Metaphors for Masculinity. In Brod, Harry and Kaufman, Michael. (eds.). Theorizing Masculinities. London: Sage
Fleming, A.A. (1999). Older Men in Contemporary Discourses on Ageing: Absent Bodies and Invisible Lives. Nursing Inquiry, March, 6(1):3-8.
Frith, Hannah, and Kate Gleeson. (2004). Clothing and Embodiment: Men Managing Body Image and Appearance. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 5(1):40-48, January.
Fussell, Sam. (1991). Muscle: Confessions of an Unlikely Bodybuilder. London: Cardinal
Galli, N. and J. J. Reel (2009). Adonis or Hephaestus? Exploring Body Image in Male Athletes. Psychology of Men & Masculinity April 10(2): 95-108.
Gallop, Jane. (1981). Phallus/Penis: Same Difference. In Todd, J. (ed.). Men by Women. New York: Homes and Meier.
Giazitzoglu, Andreas. (2010). Working out our melancholy, our muscles and our masculinities: Depression, anomie, alienation, commodity fetishism, body-modification and masculinity in a de-industrialised Northumbrian Town. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.
Gill, Rosalind, Karen Henwood, and Carl McLean. (2005). Body Projects and the Regulation of Normative Masculinity. Body & Society, 11(1): 37-62.
Goldstein, L. (ed.). (1993). The Male Body. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.
Griffith, R. Marie. (2000). Apostles of abstinence: Fasting and masculinity during the Progressive Era. American Quarterly v 52 no 4, Dec, pp. 599-638.
Grogan, Sarah and Helen Richards. (2002). Body Image: Focus Groups with Boys and Men. Men and Masculinities, 4(3), January, pp. 219-232.
Grogan, Sarah. (1999). Understanding Body Disatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. London: Routledge.
Grosz, Elizabeth. (1987). Notes Towards a Corporeal Feminism. Australian Feminist Studies, 5, Summer
Gunew, Sneja. (1987). Male Sexuality: Feminist Intepretations. Australian Feminist Studies 5, Summer.
Hage, J.J., Becking, A.G., Degraaf, F.H. and Tuinzing, D.B. (1997). Gender-Confirming Facial Surgery: Considerations on the Masculinity and Femininity of faces. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 99(7), pp. 1799-1807.
Hargreaves, D. A., and M. Tiggemann. (2006). ‘Body Image is for Girls’: A Qualitative Study of Boys’ Body Image. J Health Psychol, 11(4): 567-576.
Hasbrook, C. A., and O. Harris. (1999). Wrestling with Gender: Physicality and Masculinities among Inner-City First and Second Graders. Men and Masculinities, 1(3): 302-318.
Hatoum, I. J., and D. Belle. (2004). Mags and Abs: Media Consumption and Bodily Concerns in Men. Sex Roles, 51(7-8): 397.
Hearn, J. (2012) Male bodies, masculine bodies, men’s bodies: the need for a concept of gex. In: Routledge Handbook of Body Studies. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 307-320.
Heaven, P., and D. Rowe. (1990). Gender, Sport and Body Image. In Rowe and Lawrence. (eds.). Sport and Leisure: Trends in Contemporary Popular Culture. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.
Hennen, P. (2005). Bear Bodies, Bear Masculinity: Recuperation, Resistance, or Retreat? Gender Society, 19(1): 25-43.
Hitzeroth, Volker et al. (2001). Muscle Dysmorphia: A South African example. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 55, pp. 521-523
International Journal of Men’s Health. (2002). Volume 1 Number 2, May.
Jackson, David. (1990). Falling Apart, Men’s Bodies and Masculine Identities. Chapter 3 in Unmasking Masculinity: A Critical autobiography. London: Unwin Hyman
Jackson, David. (1990). Falling Apart. Marxism Today, October
Jefferson, T. (1998). Muscle, ‘Hard Men’ and ‘Iron’ Mike Tyson: Reflections on Desire, Anxiety and the Embodiment of Masculinity. Body & Society, 4(1): 77-98.
Johnson, M. (2010). “Just Getting Off”: The Inseparability of Ejaculation and Hegemonic Masculinity. Journal of Men’s Studies, 18 (3), 238-248.
Justad, Mark J. (1996). A Transvaluation of Phallic Masculinity: Writing With and Through the Male Body. Journal of Men’s Studies, 4(4), May, pp. 355-374.
Kanayama, G., S. Barry, J. I. Hudson, and H. G. Pope. (2006). Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic-androgenic steroid users. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4): 697-703.
Kasson, John F. (2001). Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The white male body and the challenge of modernity in America. New York: Hill and Wang.
Keane, H. (2005). Diagnosing the male steroid user: drug use, body image and disordered masculinity. Health (London), 9(2): 189-208.
Kehily, M. (2001). Bodies in School: Young Men, Embodiment, and Heterosexual Masculinities. Men and Masculinities, 4(2): 173-185.
Kimmel, Michael S. (1994). Consuming Manhood: The Feminization of American Culture and the Recreation of the Male Body, 1832-1920. Michigan Quarterly Review, 33(1), pp. 7-36.
Kimmel, Michael, Jeff Hearn, and R.W. Connell. (eds.). (2005). The Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kimmel, S. B., & Mahalik, J. R. (2005). Body image concerns of gay men: The roles of minority stress and conformity to masculine norms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1185-1190.
Kirk, D. (2000). High School Rugby, the Body and the Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity. Sport, Education and Society, 5(2), pp. 163-176.
Klein, Allan M. (1989). Managing Deviance: Hustling, Homophobia, and the Bodybuilding Subculture. Deviant Behaviour, 10(1). (Also in Patricia A. and Peter Adler. (eds.). (1994). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company).
Klein, Allan M. (1993). Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction. State University of New York Press.
Klein, Allan M. (1993). Of Muscles and Men. Sciences, 33(6), November-December, pp. 32-37.
Kong, T. S. K. (2002). The Seduction of the Golden Boy: The Body Politics of Hong Kong Gay Men. Body Society, 8(1): 29-48.
Lafrance, M. (2012). Building a Body, Building a Life: Men, Masculinity and the Birth of Bodybuilding Magazines in Montreal. Canadian Perspectives on Masculinity: Historical and Contemporary. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.
Laws, T and Drummond, Murray. (2001). A Pro-Active Approach to Assessing Men for Eating Disorders. Contemporary Nurse. Vol 11 No 1.
Lehman, Peter. (1993). Running Scared: Masculinity and the Representation of the Male Body. Temple University Press.
Lehman, Peter. (ed.). (2000). Masculinity: Bodies, Movies, Culture. New York: Routledge. Contents;
Leit, Richard A., Harrison G. Pope Jr., and James J. Gray. (2000). Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: The evolution of playgirl centerfolds. International Journal of Eating Disorders, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp. 90-93.
Leng, Kwok Wei. (1993). Muscle: Or How to Impress With Flesh and Be a Social Theorist Too. Melbourne Journal of Politics, 21.
Levant, Ronald F., et al. (2009). The efficacy of Alexithymia Reduction Treatment: a pilot study. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 17(1).
Levant, Ronald F., Katherine Richmond, Alfred Sellers, Richard G. Majors, Jaime E. Inclan, Jeannette M. Rossello, Martin Heesacker, George T. Rowan. (2003). A Multicultural Investigation of Masculinity Ideology and Alexithymia. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 4(2):91-99, July.
Light, R., and D. Kirk. (2000). High School Rugby, the Body and the Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity. Sport, Education and Society, 1 October, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 163-176.
Litewka, Jack. (1977). The Socialised Penis. In Snodgrass, Jon. (ed.). For Men Against Sexism, Albion CA: Times Change Press
Longhurst, R. (2005). Man-breasts. In B. van Hoven and K. Horschelmann. (eds.). Spaces of Masculinity. New York: Routledge, pp. 165-78.
Mangan, J.A. (ed). (1999). Shaping the Superman: Fascist body as political icon – Ayran fascism. Frank Cass.
Mangan, J.A. (ed). (2000). Superman Supreme: Fascist body as political icon – Global fascism. Frank Cass.
Marshall, Barbara L., and Stephen Katz. (2002). Forever Functional: Sexual fitness and the ageing male body. Body & Society, 8(4), pp. 43-70.
Mason, Gay. (1992). Looking Into Masculinity: Sport, Media and the Construction of the Male Body Beautiful. Social Alternatives, 11(1)
McCabe, Marita P., and Linda A. Ricciardelli. (2001). Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and decrease Body Size Among Adolescent Boys and Girls. Adolescence, 36(142), Summer
McCreary, Donald R., Doris K. Sasse, Deborah M. Saucier, and Kim D. Dorsch. (2004). Measuring the Drive for Muscularity: Factorial Validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Men and Women. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 5(1):49-58, January.
McDonagh, L. K., T. G. Morrison and B. E. McGuire (2008). The naked truth: development of a scale designed to measure male body image self-consciousness during physical intimacy. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 16(3): 253(13).
McDowell, Deborah E. (1997). Pecs and Reps: Muscling in on Race and the Subject of Masculinities. In Stecopoulos, Harry and Uebel, Michael. (eds.). Race and the Subject of Masculinities, Duke University Press.
McMillan, Peter. (1992). Balls and All. pp. 6-13 in Men, Sex & Other Secrets. Melbourne: Text Publishing Company
McNeill, L. S. and K. Douglas (2011). Retailing masculinity: Gender expectations and social image of male grooming products in New Zealand. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 18(5): 448-454.
Messerschmidt, James W. (1999). Making Bodies Matter: Adolescent masculinities, the body, and varieties of violence. Theoretical Criminology, 3(2), pp. 197-220.
Messerschmidt, James W. (2000). Nine Lives: Adolescent masculinities, the body, and violence. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Messner, Michael A. (1992). The Embodiment of Masculinity. In Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press
Messner, Michael A. and Sabo, Donald F. (eds.). (1990). Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives. Illinois: Human Kinetics Books.
Miller, Toby. (2001). Sportsex. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Mills, J. S., and S. R. D’Alfonso. (2007). Competition And Male Body Image: Increased Drive For Muscularity Following Failure to a Female. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(4): 505.
Mischewski, A. (1999). Talking Seminally. In A O’Shea (Ed), Hush Men Are Speaking. Woodend: Print Creations, 72-74.
Mishkind, M. et.al. (1986). The Embodiment of Masculinity. American Behavioural Scientist, 29(5), May/June.(Also in Kimmel, Michael. (ed). (1987). Changing Men: New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity. New York: Sage).
Monaghan, Lee F. (2007) Body Mass Index, Masculinities and Moral Worth: Men’s Critical Talk about ‘Appropriate’ Weight-for-Height. Sociology of Health & Illness, 29 (4): 584-609.
Monaghan, Lee F. (2007) McDonaldizing Men’s Bodies? Slimming, Associated (Ir)Rationalities and Resistances. Body & Society, 13(2): 67-93.
Monaghan, Lee F. (2008) Men and the War on Obesity: A Sociological Study. Oxon and New York: Routledge.
Monaghan, Lee F. (2008) Men, Physical Activity and the Obesity Discourse: Critical Understandings from a Qualitative Study. Sociology of Sport Journal: Special Issue - the Social Construction of Fat. 25 (1): 97-128.
Monaghan, Lee F. (2009) Bodily Sensibility: vocabularies of the Discredited Male Body. Critical Public Health. Special Issue: Men’s Health: Practice, Policy, Research and Theory 19 (3-4): 341-62. (With M. Hardey.) Also revised and reprinted in E. Rich, L. Monaghan and L. Aphramor (eds.) (forthcoming, 2010) Debating Obesity: Critical Perspectives. New York: Palgrave.
Monaghan, Lee. (2005). Big Handsome Men, Bears and Others: Virtual Constructions of ‘Fat Male Embodiment’. Body & Society, 11, no. 2: 81-111.
Montemayor, Raymond. (1978). Men and Their Bodies: The Relationship between Body Type and Behaviour. Journal of Social Issues, 34(1), Winter.
Moore, Lisa Jean. (2002). Extracting Men from Semen: Masculinity in Scientific Representations of Sperm. Social Text, Volume 20, Number 4, Winter, pp. 91-119.
Morgan, David. (1993). You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: Reflections on the Male Body and Masculinities. In Scott, S. and Morgan, David. (eds.). Body Matters: Essays on the Sociology of the Body, Sussex: Falmer Press.
Morrison, Todd G., and Marie Halton. (2009). Buff, tough, and rough: representations of muscularity in action motion pictures. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 17(1).
Morrison, Todd G., Melanie A. Morrison, and Christine Hopkins. (2003). Striving for Bodily Perfection? An Exploration of the Drive for Muscularity in Canadian Men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 4(2):111-120, July.
Morrison, Todd G., Melanie A. Morrison, Christine Hopkins, and E. Tyler Rowan. (2004). Muscle Mania: Development of a New Scale Examining the Drive for Muscularity in Canadian Males. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 5(1):30-39, January 2004.
Mosher, Jerry. (2001). Setting free the bears: refiguring fat man on television. In Bodies Out of Bounds: Fatness and Transgression, edited by Jana Evans Braziel and Kathleen LeBesco, pp. 166-193. University of California Press, Berkeley.
O’Dea, Jennifer A., and Patrick R. Rawstorne. (2001). Male Adolescents Identify Their Weight Gain Practices, Reasons for Desired Weight Gain, and Sources of Weight Gain Information. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 101(1)
Olivardia, R. et al. (2000). Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Weightlifters: A Case-Control Study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 157, pp. 1291-96.
Panchasi, Roxanne. (1995). Reconstructions: Prosthetics and the Rehabilitation of the Male Body in World War I France. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 7(3).
Parker, Andrew. (1996). Sporting Masculinities: Gender Relations and the Body. In Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin. (ed.). Understanding Masculinities: Social Relations and Cultural Arenas. Buckingham & Philadelphia: Open University Press
Patterson, Wanda M. et al. (2001). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. International Journal of Dermatology. 40
Pearce, Sharyn, and Vivienne Muller. (2002). Manning the Next Millennium: Studies in Masculinities. Black Swan Press. Includes;
Peniston-Bird, C. (2003). Classifying the Body in the Second World War: British Men in and Out of Uniform. Body Society, 9(4): 31-48.
Peters, Mark Anthony, and LeAddelle Phelps. (2001). Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders. Psychology in the Schools, 38(3), pp. 283-89; May.
Petersen, Alan. (1998). Male Bodies That Matter. Chapter 3 in Unmasking the Masculine: ‘Men’ and ‘Identity’ in a Sceptical Age. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Phillips, J., and Drummond, Murray. (2001). An Investigation into the Body Image Perceptions, Body Satisfaction and Exercise Expectations of Male Fitness Leaders: Implications for Professional Practice. Leisure Studies Journal. Vol 20 No 2.
Phillips, Katharine A. and David J. Castle. (2001). Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Men. British Medical Journal. Vol. 323, 3 November
Pope, Harrison G. et al. (1993). Anorexia Nervosa and ‘Reverse Anorexia’ Among 108 Male Bodybuilders. Compr. Psychiatry. 34, pp. 406-409.
Pope, Harrison G. et al. (1997). Muscle Dysphoria. Psychosomatics. 38, pp. 548-557.
Pope, Harrison G. et al. (1999). Evolving Ideals of Male Body Image as Seen Through Action Toys. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 26, pp. 65-72.
Pope, Harrison G. et al. (2000). Body Image Perception Among Men in Three Countries. American Journal of Psychiatry. 157(8), August
Pope, Harrison G. et al. (2000). The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Body Obsession. Free Press.
Pope, Harrison G., Olivardia R., Borowiecki J.J and Cohane G.H. (2001). The Growing Commercial Value of the Male Body: A longitudinal Survey of Advertising in Women’s Magazines. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics. 70(4):189-192, Jul-Aug.
Potts, Annie. (2000). ‘The Essence of the Hard On’: Hegemonic Masculinity and the Cultural Construction of ‘Erectile Dysfunction’. Men and Masculinities, 3(1), July.
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Reichert, Tom. (1999). Cheesecake and Beefcake: No matter how you slice it, sexual explicitness in advertising continues to increase. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Spring, Vol. 76, Iss. 1; pp. 7-21.
Ricciardelli, L. A., M. P. McCabe and D. Ridge (2006). The Construction of the Adolescent Male Body through Sport. J Health Psychol, 11(4): 577-587.
Ricciardelli, Lina A., and Marita P. McCabe. (2004). A Biopsychosocial Model of Disordered Eating and the Pursuit of Muscularity in Adolescent Boys. Psychological Bulletin. 130(2):179-205, March.
Rubinstein, Gidi. (2003). Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism - A Comparative Study Among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 4(2):100-110, July.
Ryan, Jenny. (2001). Muscling In: Gender and Physicality in Weight-Training Culture. pp. 166-188; IN: Watson, Nick. (ed.). Cunningham-Burley, Sarah. (ed.). Reframing the Body; New York: Palgrave.
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Schiffellite, Carmen. (1987). Beyond Tarzan and Jane Genes: Toward a Critique of Biological Determinism. In Kaufman, Michael. (ed.). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power and Change. New York: Oxford University Press
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Shapiro, Eugene. (2000). Upright Man. Pir Press.
Silberstein, Lisa R., Mishkind, Marc E. and Striegel-Moore, Ruth H. (1989). Men and Their Bodies: A Comparison of Homosexual and Heterosexual Men. Psychosomatic Medicine, May 1, 51(3).
Silvennoinen, M., and A. Sparkes. (eds.). (1999). Men’s Bodies. University of Jyvaskyla: SoPhi.
Skinner, S. Rachel, and Martha Hickey. (2003). Current Priorities for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 179, August 4, pp. 158-161.
Smith, Clarissa. (2002). Shiny Chests and Heaving G-strings: A night out with the Chippendales. Sexualities, Volume 5 Issue 1.
Smolak, Linda, Sarah K. Murnen, and J. Kevin Thompson. (2005). Sociocultural Influences and Muscle Building in Adolescent Boys. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(4), October.
Soar, Matthew. (2001). Engines and Acolytes of Consumption: Black male bodies, advertising and the laws of thermodynamics. Body & Society, 7(4), pp. 37-55.
Sparkes, Andrew C., and Brett Smith. (2002). Sport, Spinal Cord Injury, Embodied Masculinities, and the Dilemmas of Narrative Identity. Men and Masculinities, 4(3), January, pp. 258-285.
Spongberg, Mary. (1997). Are Small Penises Necessary for Civilisation? The male body and the body politic. Australian Feminist Studies, 12(25)
Stephens, Elizabeth, and Jorgen Lorentzen. (eds.). Men and Masculinities, Special issue: Male Bodies, July, 10(1);
Still, Judith. (ed.). (2003). Understanding Men’s Bodies in Visual Culture. (Special issue of Paragraph 26, Nos 1 and 2, March-July 2003) Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.
Strelan, P., and D. Hargreaves. (2005). Reasons for Exercise and Body Esteem: Men’s Responses to self-Objectification. Sex Roles. 53: 495-503.
Strong, S.M., D. Singh, and P.K. Randall. (2000). Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men. Sex Roles. 43(7-8):427-439, Oct..
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